Energy Security and Disaster Risk Governance in Energy Sector of Bangladesh

Khan Ferdousour Rahman, Indrajit Pal, Afshana Parven


Bangladesh is prone to various hydrometeorological hazards due to its geophysical location. The exposures and resulting impacts of these natural hazards are aggravated by persistent social, economic and environmental status. Compounded with the country’s current dependence on imported fossil fuels and other challenges, this study seeks to stimulate discussions around the complementarity of energy sector as well as its linkages with disaster risk governance and promote good governance in the sector that integrates energy policies, disaster risk governance and climate change impacts. The energy sector plays a critical role in all stages of the disaster management cycle; especially considering that all societal service systems rely on the energy sector for everyday activities, as well as for emergency response and recovery (e.g., telecommunications, health, and infrastructure). Addressing the resilience of energy systems as a component of disaster risk governance, and in response to climate change, requires considering all the components of the power supply value chain. These components should be deployed in line with relevant national policy frameworks (i.e., national development plans, energy policies, building policies, among other regulations and planning instruments), availability of technical capabilities, and financial resources, among others. However, this has been observed that energy-related measures are poorly considered in the early stages of the disaster risk governance cycle. Therefore, this study proposes to promote the resilience of the energy sector in Bangladesh through comprehensive measures. With that in mind, efforts have been made to identify challenges, gaps and recommend plausible measures for solutions.


disaster risk governance; fossil fuels; natural hazards; power supply value chain; resilience

Full Text:



Ahmed A.U., 2013. Facing an Uncertain Future Under Global Environmental Change: How Bangladesh Will Address Vulnerabilities? Dhaka: Centre for Global Change (CGC).

Planning Commission, 2019. Bangladesh Economic Review. Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh (GoB), Dhaka.

Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2017. Booming South Asia Is Driving Economic Growth in Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank. Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

Trading Economics, 2015. Bangladesh GDP Forecast. New York.

SACEPS, 2004. Executive Summary of Energy Co-operation in South Asia: Opportunities Strategies and Modalities. South Asia Centre for Policies Studies (SACEPS).

UNDP, 2018. Human Development Indices and Indicators 2018 Statistical Update. United Nations Development Programme. One United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017.

Gulagi A., Ram M., Solomon A.A., Khan M., and Breyer C., 2020. Current energy policies and possible transition scenarios adopting renewable energy: A case study for Bangladesh, Renewable Energy 155: 899-920.

Fordham M., 2006, Disaster and development research and practice: A necessary eclecticism? In: Rodriguez H, Quarantelli EL, and Dynes RR (ed), Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer.

Thanvisitthpon N., Shrestha S., and Pal I., 2018. Urban flooding and climate change: A case study of Bangkok, Thailand. Environment and Urbanization ASIA 9(1): 86-100. doi:10.1177/0975425317748532.

Pal I. and S. Bhatia, 2017. Disaster risk governance and city resilience in Asia-pacific region. Science and Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia: Potentials and Challenges 137-159. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-812711-7.00009-2.

Pal I., Ghosh T., and Ghosh C., 2017. Institutional framework and administrative systems for effective disaster risk governance – Perspectives of 2013 cyclone Phailin in India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 21: 350-359. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.01.002.

Pranti A.S., Iqubal M.S., Saifullah A.Z.A., and Ahmmed K., 2013. Current energy situation and comparative solar power possibility analysis for obtaining sustainable energy security in South Asia. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 2(8): 1-10.

Moazzem K.G., 2019. The Power and Energy Sector of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.

MPEMR, 2005. National Energy Policy of Bangladesh. Dhaka.

Gunatilake H. and D. Roland-Holst, 2016. Smart Energy Options for Bangladesh. Copenhagen Consensus Center.

Ahmad Q.K., Biswas A.K., Rangachari R., and Sainju M.M. (ed), 2001. Ganges-Brahmaputra-

Meghna Region: A Framework for Sustainable Development. Dhaka: University Press Limited.

BBS, 2005. Statistical Yearbook o Bangladesh. The Ministry of Planning, The Government of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh.

BPC, 2011. Annual Report. Dhaka: Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation.

Ullah M.H., Hoque T., and Hasib M.M., 2012. Current status of renewable energy sector in Bangladesh and a proposed grid connected hybrid renewable energy system, International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research 1(11): 618-627.

Islam M.S., Islam A., Hasan M.M., and Khan A.H., 2013. Feasibility study of wind power generation in Bangladesh: A statistical study in the perspective of wind power density and plant capacity factor. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research 3(3): 476-487.

Zeng M., Liu Y., Ouyang S., Shi H., and Li C., 2016. Nuclear energy in the post-Fukushima era: Research on the developments of the Chinese and worldwide nuclear power industries. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews 58: 147-156.

Karim R., Muhammad-Sukki F., Karim M.E., Munir A.B., Sifat I.M., Abu-Bakar S.H., Bani N.A., and Muhtazaruddin M.N., 2018. Energies, legal and regulatory development of nuclear energy in Bangladesh. Energies 11(2847). doi:10.3390/en11102847.

Pramanik M., Diwakar A.K., Dash P., Szabo S., and Pal I., 2020. Conservation planning of cash crops species (garcinia gummi-gutta) under current and future climate in the western ghats, India. Environment, Development and Sustainability. doi:10.1007/s10668-020-00819-6.

Taheruzzaman M. and P. Janik, 2016. Electric energy access in Bangladesh. Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering 1(2).

Mujeri M.K., Chowdhury T.T., and Sahana S., 2014. Energy Sector in Bangladesh: An Agenda for Reform. The International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Nicolas C., Rentschler J., Potter van Loon A., Oguah S., Schweikert A., Deinert M., Koks E., Arderne C., Cubas D., Li J., and Ichikawa E., 2019. LIFELINES: The Resilient Infrastructure Opportunity. Washington DC: World Bank Group.

Rentschler J., Obolensky M., and Kornejew M., 2019. Candle in the Wind? Energy System Resilience to Natural Shocks. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. Washington DC: World Bank.

Flores A. and L. Peralta, 2020. The Enhancement of Resilience to Disasters and Climate Change in the Caribbean through the Modernization of the Energy Sector. No. 84, Santiago: ECLAC.

Carlsson G., 2007. Where Energy of Women’s Business: National and Regional Reports from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Pacific. ENERGIA.

UNDP-World Bank, 2004. Opportunities for Women in Renewable Technology Use in Bangladesh (Phase-I). Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the Bank Netherlands Water Partnership Program (BNWPP).

Gunatilake H. and D. Roland-Holst, 2013. Energy Policy Options for Sustainable Development in Bangladesh. Manila: ADB.

Islam S. and M.Z.R. Khan, 2017. A review of energy sector of Bangladesh. Energy Procedia 110: 611-618.

GFDRR, 2013. Strategy 2013-2015: Managing Disaster Risks for a Resilient Future. Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction (GFDRR).

Prindle W., 2009. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Energy Efficiency as a Low-cost Resource for Achieving Carbon Emissions Reductions. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency/US Department of Energy.

ECLAC, 2016. The future of energy: Latin America’s path to sustainability. In Proceedings of the International Conference. Santiago de Chile, August 18 -19.

Thanvisitthpon N., Shrestha S., Pal I., Ninsawat S., and Chaowiwat W., 2020. Assessment of flood adaptive capacity of urban areas in Thailand. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 81. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2019.106363.

Mohanty A., Hussain M., Mishra M., Kattel D.B., and Pal I., 2019. Exploring community resilience and early warning solution for flash floods, debris flow and landslides in conflict prone villages of Badakhshan, Afghanistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 33: 5-15. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.07.012

Mohanty W.K., Walling M.Y., Nath S.K., and Pal I., 2007. First order seismic microzonation of Delhi, India using geographic information system (GIS). Natural Hazards 40(2): 245-260. doi:10.1007/s11069-006-0011-0.