Experimental Study of the Effect of Winglets on Horizontal Wind Turbine (HAWT) Performance

Danar Susilo Wijayanto, Soenarto Soenarto, Mochammad Bruri Triyono, Achmad Sangidzun


Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) applications are primarily used for large wind energy capacities, and this is undoubtedly a problem for applications at a low-speed potential. However, developments related to improving performance for small-scale applications are still being studied, one of which is winglet blades. The application of winglets in aircraft provides advantages in reducing induced drag, leading to an increase in lift. Based on this case, the use of winglets in HAWT is an innovation that needs to be investigated to maximize its performance. In this study, the effect of winglet blades with the configuration of blades number and pitch angle was tested for their effect on wind speeds of 1.5 m/s to 5 m/s. In the results of the study, it can be seen that an increase in the pitch angle and wind speed affects the energy produced. In addition, it is known that an increase in the number of turbine blades will also increase energy and performance. In this case, the turbine performance with four winglet blades can produce the highest power, power coefficient (Cp), and tip speed ratio (TSR) of 11.34 Watt, 0.313 and 3.57, respectively.


Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT); Turbine optimization; Wind energy; Winglet

Full Text:



Bórawski P., Bełdycka-Bórawska A., Jankowski K.J., Dubis B., and Dunn J.W., 2020. Development of wind energy market in the European Union. Renew. Energy 161: 691–700. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2020.07.081.

Wang S.H. and S.H. Chen. 2008. Blade number effect for a ducted wind turbine. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 22(10): 1984–1992. doi: 10.1007/s12206-008-0743-8.

López-González A., Ranaboldo M., Domenech B., and Ferrer-Martí L., 2020. Evaluation of small wind turbines for rural electrification: Case studies from extreme climatic conditions in Venezuela. Energy 209: 118450. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2020.118450.

Islam M.R., Mekhilef S., and Saidur R., 2013. Progress and recent trends of wind energy technology Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 21: 456–468. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.007.

Hyams M.A., 2012. Wind energy in the built environment. Metropolitan Sustainability: Understanding and Improving the Urban Environment. Woodhead Publishing, pp. 457–499.

Winslow A.R., 2017. Urban wind generation: Comparing horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Mamouri A.R., Khoshnevis A.B., and Lakzian E., 2020. Experimental study of the effective parameters on the offshore wind turbine's airfoil in pitching case. Ocean Eng. 198: 106955. doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.106955.

Karthikeyan N., Kalidasa, Murugavel K., Arun Kumar S., and Rajakumar S., 2015. Review of aerodynamic developments on small horizontal axis wind turbine blade. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 42: 801–822. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.086.

Saleem A. and M.H. Kim. 2020. Aerodynamic performance optimization of an airfoil-based airborne wind turbine using genetic algorithm. Energy 203: 117841. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2020.117841.

Nasab N.M., Kilby J., and Bakhtiaryfard L., 2019. Effect of number of blades on generating power in wind turbines. In 2019 29th Australas. Univ. Power Eng. Conf. AUPEC 2019, pp. 0–5, doi: 10.1109/AUPEC48547.2019.211880.

Khaled M., Ibrahim M.M., Hamed H.E., and AbdelGwad A.F., 2019. Investigation of a small Horizontal–Axis wind turbine performance with and without winglet. Energy 187: 115921. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2019.115921.

Mourad M.G., Shahin I., Ayad S.S., Abdellatif O. E., and Mekhail T.A., 2020. Effect of winglet geometry on horizontal axis wind turbine performance. Eng. Reports 2(1): 1–19 doi: 10.1002/eng2.12101.

Pillai P.S. and A.R. Harikumar. 2021. The effects of winglet on hawt blade and the optimum ratio between wing and winglet dimensions. In IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 1114(1): 012049. doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/1114/1/012049.

Iswahyudi S., Sutrisno, Prajitno, and Wibowo S.B., 2019. Effect of blade tip shapes on the performance of a small HAWT: An investigation in a wind tunnel. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 19: 100634. doi: 10.1016/j.csite.2020.100634.

Ali A., Chowdhury H., Loganathan B., and Alam F., 2015. An aerodynamic study of a domestic scale horizontal axis wind turbine with varied tip configurations. Procedia Eng. 105: 757–762 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.05.067.

Mühle F., Bartl J., Hansen T., Adaramola M.S., and Sætran L., 2020. An experimental study on the effects of winglets on the tip vortex interaction in the near wake of a model wind turbine. Wind Energy 23(5):1286–1300. doi: 10.1002/we.2486.

Anwarul K.M., 2021. Small windmill as alternative power source for Bangladesh: A feasibility survey under wind speed scenarios. Int. Energy J. 21(1): 33–40.

Abdelrahman M.A., Abdellatif O.E., Moawed M., and Eliwa A., 2016. Effect of blade number on performance of drag type vertical axis wind turbine. Appl. Sol. Energy (English Transl. Geliotekhnika) 52(4): 315–320. doi: 10.3103/S0003701X16040150.

Rachman A., Balaka R., Delly J., and Gunawan Y., 2013. Simulation on the effect of the blade number on the rotational characteristic on a horizontal axis river current turbine. Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng. 4(1): 1–8. doi: 10.1186/2251-6832-4-32.