Effect of Various Control Strategies on Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine: A Review

Kien Nguyen Trung


This paper introduces a new alternative combustion concept as well as a detailed overview of the technique. GCI (gasoline compression ignition) is a promising advanced combustion mode for increasing fuel economy and lowering emissions. This is an innovative engine technology that uses the higher volatility of gasoline and auto-ignition temperature, as well as a diesel engine's higher compression ratio (CR), to reduce soot and NOx emissions while maintaining diesel engine efficiency. However, GCI engine has some challenges included cold starting, high CO and HC emissions, combustion stability at part load, and high combustion noise at medium-to-full load operations. Therefore, this paper reviews the experimental, numerical, and optical studies to go over various aspects of GCI engine technology, such as its combustion characteristics and controls. Furthermore, this paper examines some experimental studies to assess the potential benefits of GCI technology before pointing out future works. In various control strategies on GCI engines, the fuel injection strategy is the best solution to control the distribution of mixture concentration in the cylinder; adding additives into gasoline can change the reactivity of fuel and extend the lower limit of the stable combustion load of the GCI combustion method and coupling control strategies may be used to achieve stable combustion.


Alternative combustion concept; Combustion; Emissions; Gasoline compression ignition (GCI); Low temperature combustion (LTC)

Full Text:



Maurya R.K., 2018. Characteristics and Control of Low Temperature Combustion Engines: Employing Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Heywood J.B., 2018. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. Second Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Kumar P. and A. Rehman. 2016. Bio-diesel in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 56: 536-550.

Xu L., Bai X., Li Y., Treacy M., Li C., Tunestal P., Tunér M., and Lu X., 2020 Effect of piston bowl geometry and compression ratio on in-cylinder combustion and engine performance in a gasoline direct-injection compression ignition engine under different injection conditions. Applied Energy 280: 115920.

Singh A.P., Sharma N., Agarwal R., and Agarwal A.K., 2020. Advanced Combustion Techniques and Engine Technologies for the Automotive Sector. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Wei H., Hua J., Pan M., Feng D., Zhou L., and Pan J., 2018. Experimental investigation on knocking combustion characteristics of gasoline compression ignition engine. Energy 143: 624-633.

Liu H., Mao B., Liu J., Zheng Z., and Yao M., 2018. Pilot injection strategy management of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. Fuel 221: 116-127.

Park W., Ra Y., Kurtz E., Willems W., and Reitz R. D., 2015. Use of Multiple Injection Strategies to Reduce Emission and Noise in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion. SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, United States, 21-23 April. Warrendale : SAE International.

Qiu L., Cheng X., Liu B., Dong S., and Bao Z., 2016. Partially premixed combustion based on different injection strategies in a light-duty diesel engine. Energy 96: 155-165.

Tang Q., Liu H., Li M., and Yao M., 2016. Study on the Double Injection Strategy of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion under a Light-Duty Optical Engine. SAE International Journal of Engines, 2016. 9(4): 2185-2193.

Zou X., Liu W., Lin Z., Wu B., and Su W., 2018. An experimental investigation of the effects of fuel injection strategy on the efficiency and emissions of a heavy-duty engine at high load with gasoline compression ignition. Fuel 220: 437-445.

Thongchai S. and O. Lim. 2017. Influence of Injection Strategy on a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline. Energy Procedia 105: 1757-1763.

Woo C., Goyal H., Kook S., Hawkes E., and Chan Q.N., 2016. Double Injection Strategies for Ethanol-Fuelled Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine. SAE 2016 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting. Baltimore, United States, 24-26 October. Warrendale: SAE International.

Putrasari Y. and O. Lim. 2017. A study on combustion and emission of GCI engines fueled with gasoline-biodiesel blends. Fuel 189: 141-154.

Kim D. and C. Bae. 2017. Application of double-injection strategy on gasoline compression ignition engine under low load condition. Fuel 203: 792-801.

Zhong W., Tamilselvan P., Li Z., Qian Y., Zhang Y., Wang Q., He Z., and Lu X., 2019. Combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline/hydrogenated catalytic biodiesel blends in gasoline compression ignition engines under different loads of double injection strategies. Applied Energy 251: 113296.

Zhang Y., Li Z., Tamilselvan P., Jiang C., He Z., Zhong W., Qian Y., Wang Q., and Lu X., 2019. Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines fueled by gasoline-hydrogenated catalytic biodiesel blends. Energy 187: 115931.

An Y., Raman V., Tang Q., Shi H., Sim J., Chang J., Magnotti G., and Johansson B., 2019. Combustion stability study of partially premixed combustion with low-octane fuel at low engine load conditions. Applied Energy 235: 56-67.

Mao B., Wang Q., Liu J., Liu H., Zheng H., and Yao M., 2017. Effects of gasoline viscosity and injection pressure on the performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder partially premixed combustion engine. The Ninth International Conference on Modeling and Diagnostics for Advanced Engine. Okayama, Japan. 25-28 July. Tokyo: The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Goyal H. and S. Kook. 2019. Ignition process of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion in a small-bore optical engine. Fuel 256: 115844.

Cung K. and S. Ciatti. 2017. A Study of Injection Strategy to Achieve High Load Points for Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Operation. ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference. Washington, USA, 15-18 October. New York: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Zhou L., Hua J., Wei H., and Han Y., 2019. An experimental investigation on low load combustion stability and cold-firing capacity of a gasoline compression ignition engine. Engineering 5(3): 558-567.

Ciatti S. and S.W. Subramanian. 2011. An experimental investigation of low-octane gasoline in diesel engines. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 133(9): 092802.

An Y., Q.T., Vallinayagam R., Shi H., Sim J., Chang J., Magnotti G., and Johansson B., 2019. Combustion stability study of partially premixed combustion by high-pressure multiple injections with low-octane fuel. Applied Energy 248: 626-639.

Jiang C., Li Z., Liu G., Qian Y., and Lu X., 2019. Achieving high efficient gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion through the cooperative-control of fuel octane number and air intake conditions. Fuel 242: 23-34.

Goyal H., Kook S., and Ikeda Y., 2019. The influence of fuel ignition quality and first injection proportion on gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion in a small-bore engine. Fuel 235: 1207-1215.

Wang H., Zhu H., Ma T., and Yao M., 2020. Numerical investigation on low octane gasoline-like fuel compression ignition combustion at high load. Fuel 270: 117532.

Agarwal D., Singh S.K., and Agarwal A.K., 2011. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance, emissions, deposits and durability of a constant speed compression ignition engine. Applied Energy 88(8): 2900-2907.

Pan M., Qian W., Wei H., Feng D., and Pan J., 2020. Effects on performance and emissions of gasoline compression ignition engine over a wide range of internal exhaust gas recirculation rates under lean conditions. Fuel 265: 116881.

Jiang C., Huang G., Liu G., Qian Y., and Lu X., 2019. Optimizing gasoline compression ignition engine performance and emissions: Combined effects of exhaust gas recirculation and fuel octane number. Applied Thermal Engineering 153: 669-677.

Balaji J., Ganesh Prasad M.V., Rao L.N., and Bandaru B., 2014. Modelling and experimental study of internal EGR system for NOX control on an off-road diesel engine. SAE 2014 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting. Birmingham, United Kingdom, 20-23 October. Warrendale: SAE International.

Dittrich P., Peter F., Huber G., and Kuehn M., 2010. Thermodynamic potentials of a fully variable valve actuation system for passenger-car diesel engines. SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, United States, 13-15 April. Warrendale: SAE International.

Zhang X., Zheng Z.H., Reitz R., and Yao M., 2016. Experimental investigations of gasoline partially premixed combustion with an exhaust rebreathing valve strategy at low loads. Applied Thermal Engineering 108: 832-841.

Xiangyu Z., Zunqing Z., Shube H., Yanfang L., Yuxuan Z., and Mingfa Y., 2018. Effects of the intake pressure on gasoline low temperature compression ignition. Chinese Internal Combustion Engine Engineering 39(1): 1-7.

Zheng Z., H.C., Liu H., Chen P., Ma N., and Yang B., 2018. Effects of split injection parameters and EGR on combustion and emissions of GCI. Journal of Combustion Science and Technology 24(4): 307-314.

Pinazzi P.M., Hwang J., Kim D., Foucher F., and Bae C., 2018. Influence of injector spray angle and gasoline-diesel blending ratio on the low load operation in a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine. Fuel 222: 496-505.

Weall A. and N. Collings. 2007. Investigation into partially premixed combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine fuelled gasoline and diesel with a mixture of. Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference and Exhibition. Rosemont, United States, 29 October - 1 November. Warrendale: SAE International.

De Nicolao G., Scattolini R., and Siviero C., 1996. Modelling the volumetric efficiency of IC engines: parametric, non-parametric and neural techniques. Control Engineering Practice 4(10): 1405-1415.

Xiao G., Y.Z., Lang J., and Jiang G., 2014. Experiment of the effects of intake temperature on GCI engine combustion and emission characteristics. Transactions of CSICE. 125-130.

Persson H., 2008. Spark Assisted Compression Ignition, SACI. Doctoral Thesis. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Xie H., Yang L., Qin J., Gao R., Zhu H., He B.Q., and Zhao H., 2005. The effect of spark ignition on the CAI combustion operation. Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference & Exhibition. San Antonio, United States, 24-27 October. Warrendale: SAE International.

Pastor J.V., Garcia-Oliver J.M., Garcia A., Mico C., and Durrett R.P., 2013. A spectroscopy study of gasoline partially premixed compression ignition spark assisted combustion. Applied Energy 104: 568-575.

Benajes J., Garcia A., Domenech V., and Durrett R., 2013. An investigation of partially premixed compression ignition combustion using gasoline and spark assistance. Applied Thermal Engineering 52(2): 468-477.

Yao M., Zheng Z., and Liu H., 2019. Progress and recent trends in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 35(5): 398-437.

Loeper P., Ra Y., Adams C., Foster D.E., Ghandhi J., Andrie M., Krieger R., and Durrett R., 2013. Experimental investigation of light-medium load operating sensitivity in a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) light-duty diesel engine. SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, United States, 16-18 April Warrendale: SAE International.

Xiangyu Z., Zunqing Z., Shube H., Yanfang L., Yuxuan Z., and Mingfa Y., 2018. Effects of the intake pressure on gasoline low temperature compression ignition CICEE. Chinese Internal Combustion Engine Engineering 39(1): 1-7.

An Y., Raman V., Tang Q., Shi H., Sim J., Chang J., Magnotti G., and Johansson B., 2019. Combustion stability study of partially premixed combustion with low-octane fuel at low engine load conditions. Applied Energy 235: 56-67.

Kalghatgi G.T., 2015. Developments in internal combustion engines and implications for combustion science and future transport fuels. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 35(1): 101-115.

Kolodziej C., Kodavasal J., Ciatti S., Som S., Shidore N., and Delhom J., 2015. Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle. SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, United States, A21-23 April. Warrendale: SAE International.

Pinazzi P.M, and F. Foucher. 2017. Influence of injection parameters, ozone seeding and residual NO on a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine at low load. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 36(3): 3659-3668.

Pinazzi P.M. and F. Foucher. 2017. Potential of Ozone to Enable Low Load Operations of a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine. WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience. Detroit, United States, 4-6 April. Warrendale: SAE International.

Chuahy F.D.F., Moses-DeBusk M., Curran S.J., Storey J.M.E., and Wagnon S.W., 2021. The effects of distillation characteristics and aromatic content on low-load gasoline compression ignition (GCI) performance and soot emissions in a multi-cylinder engine. Fuel 299: 120893.