Thermodynamic Analysis of Biomass Gasification for Energy Sustainability in Bangladesh and Major Crop Producing Asian Countries

Sampad Kumar Das, Prokash C. Roy


Biomass has an important role for energy sustainability issues in tropical countries. In this present study biomass gasification process has been studied using a stoichiometric equilibrium model of biomass gasifier. The gasification process has been considered as a combination of methanation reaction and water gas shift reaction. The reaction rate constants have been considered as an explicit function of gasification temperature. The model has been validated with available experimental results and used to study the effect of equivalence ratio and reaction temperature on the overall gasification process. Three different biomasses specifically rice straw, rice husk and animal manure waste have been considered. The equivalence ratio has been varied from 0.15 to 0.35 for all considered biomass feedstock. The gasification model has been examined for temperatures 1073K and 1173K for all combinations of biomass and equivalence ratio. The mole percentage of different gas specifically hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide have been calculated as a function of the theoretical mole fraction of different gases and equivalence ratio for all the considered biomasses. The cold gas efficiency and lower heating value of the produced gas mixture have been estimated. Finally estimation of energy by biomass gasification has been examined for energy sustainability in major crop-producing Asian nations.


Crop and animal manure waste; equivalence ratio; gasification; stoichiometric equilibrium; sustainability

Full Text:



Jarungthammachote S. and A. Dutta. 2007. Thermodynamic equilibrium model and second law analysis of a downdraft waste gasifier. Energy 32(9): 1660-1669.

Jirakulsomchok K. and S.S.H. Pisitsungkakarn. 2019. Numerical study of performance of a late mixing porous burner (LMPB) for combustion of low-calorific synthetic-gas from biomass gasification. International Energy Journal 19(4): 243-252.

Barman N.S., Ghosh S., and De S., 2012. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier – A realistic model including tar. Bioresource technology 107: 505-511.

Sasujit K., Dussadee N., Homdoung N., Ramaraj R., and Kiatsiriroat T., 2017. Waste-to-Energy: Producer gas production from fuel briquette of energy crop in Thailand. International Energy Journal 17(1): 37-46.

Mendiburu A.Z., Carvalho Jr J.A., Zanzi R., Coronado C.R., and Silveira J.L., 2014. Thermochemical equilibrium modeling of a biomass downdraft gasifier: Constrained and unconstrained non-stoichiometric models. Energy 71: 624-637.

Enget C. and K. Jaojaruek. 2020. CFD modeling of a downdraft gasifier with woodchips used as feedstock. International Energy Journal 20(1): 39-56.

Melgar A., Pérez J.F., Laget H., and Horillo A., 2007. Thermochemical equilibrium modelling of a gasifying process. Energy Conversion and Management 48(1): 59-67.

Ratnadhariya J.K. and S.A. Channiwala. 2009. Three zone equilibrium and kinetic free modeling of biomass gasifier – A novel approach. Renewable Energy 34(4):1050-1058.

Jess A., 1996. Mechanisms and kinetics of thermal reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons from pyrolysis of solid fuels. Fuel 75(12): 1441-1448.

Tillman D.A., 1978. Wood as an Energy Resource. New York: Academic Press.

Kitani O. and C.W. Hall.1989. Biomass Handbook. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, pp. 863.

Pangavhane D.R. and S. Tare. 2012. Grape stalk briquettes as a alternative feedstock of biomass gasifiers. International Energy Journal 13: 11-20.

Rubio M.G.A. and K. Jaojaruek. 2018. Small-scale shaking single-stage downdraft biomass gasifier. International Energy Journal 18: 321-330.

Yan L., Cao Y., and He B., 2018. On the kinetic modeling of biomass/coal char co-gasification with steam. Chemical Engineering Journal 331: 435-442.

Sepe A.M., Li J., and Paul M.C., 2016. Assessing biomass steam gasification technologies using a multi-purpose model. Energy Conversion and Management 129: 216-226.

Shelke G.N. and P. Mahanta. 2016. Feasibility study on utilization of biomass briquette in a conventional downdraft gasifier. International Energy Journal 16: 157-166.

Prins M., van den Berg R., van Holthoon E., van Dorst E., and Geuzebroek F., 2012. Technological developments in IGCC for carbon capture. Chemical Engineering & Technology 35(3): 413-419.

Ong'iro A., Ugursal V.I., Al Taweel A.M., and Lajeunesse G., 1996. Thermodynamic simulation and evaluation of a steam CHP plant using ASPEN Plus. Applied Thermal Engineering 16(3): 263-271.

Doherty W., Reynolds A., and Kennedy D., 2009. The effect of air preheating in a biomass CFB gasifier using ASPEN Plus simulation. Biomass and Bioenergy 33(9): 1158-1167.

Douglas P.L. and B.E. Young. 1991. Modelling and simulation of an AFBC steam heating plant using ASPEN/SP. Fuel 70(2):145-154.

Heyne S., Thunman H., and Harvey S., 2012. Extending existing combined heat and power plants for synthetic natural gas production. International Journal of Energy Research 36(5): 670-681.

Gummert M., Hung N.V., Chivenge P., and Douthwaite B., 2020. Sustainable Rice Straw Management. Switzaerland: Springer Nature, pp. 2-3.

Zafar S., 2018. Rice straw as bioenergy resource. BioEnergy Consult. Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

Singh R.B., Saha R.C., Singh M., Chandra D., Shukla S.G., Walli T.K., Pradhan P.K., and Kessels H.P.P., 1995. Rice straw, its production and utilization in India. In Singh, K. and Schiere, J.B., ed. Handbook for straw feeding systems in livestock production. New Delhi, India, ICAR, pp. 325-339.

ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) and CSAM (Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization) 2018. Report Status of Straw Management in Asia-Pacific and Options for Integrated Straw Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web:

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute), 2009. report Rice Knowledge Bank for rice husk. World Wide Web:

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute), 2009. report Rice Knowledge Bank for rice straw. World Wide Web:.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) of United Nations, 2014. Statistics for Crop. Retrieved from the World Wide web:

Fourcault A., Marias F., and Michon U., 2010. Modelling of thermal removal of tars in a high temperature stage fed by a plasma torch. Biomass and Bioenergy 34(9): 1363-1374.

Fuentes-Cano D., Gómez-Barea A., Nilsson S., and Ollero P., 2016. Kinetic modeling of tar and light hydrocarbons during the thermal conversion of biomass. Energy & Fuels 30(1): 377-385.

Morf P., Hasler P., and Nussbaumer T., 2002. Mechanisms and kinetics of homogeneous secondary reactions of tar from continuous pyrolysis of wood chips. Fuel 81(7): 843-853.

Kunze C. and H. Spliethoff. 2011. Modelling, comparison and operation experiences of entrained flow gasifier. Energy Conversion and Management 52(5): 2135-2141.

Zainal Z.A., Ali R., Lean C.H., and Seetharamu K.N., 2001. Prediction of performance of a downdraft gasifier using equilibrium modeling for different biomass materials. Energy Conversion and Management 42(12): 1499-1515.

Wu K.T. and R.Y. Chein. 2015. Modeling of biomass gasification with preheated air at high temperatures. Energy Procedia 75: 214-219.

Gimelli A. and A. Luongo. 2014. Thermodynamic and experimental analysis of a biomass steam power plant: Critical issues and their possible solutions with CCGT systems. Energy Procedia 45: 227-236.

Sittisun P., Tippayawong N., and Pang S., 2019. Biomass gasification in a fixed bed downdraft reactor with oxygen enriched air: A modified equilibrium modeling study. Energy Procedia 160: 317-323.