A Comparative Study of Microgrid Policies for Rural Electricity Transition between Bangladesh and Thailand

Thongchai Meenual, Parnuwat Usapein


This paper is an exploratory study on the Bangladesh and Thailand rural electricity transition. This study compares the Bangladesh microgrid policies with that of Thailand microgrid policies. The comparative study in several areas considers electricity security, electricity access, environmental sustainability, economic development and growth of the countries. Public data related to microgrid policies in Bangladesh and Thailand had been collected, analyzed and discussed. The comparative case brings out the significant differences while also exploring the range of possible synergies across different dimensions and sectors. Concisely, the transition of rural electricity, driven by microgrid policy in both countries can be achieved by adopting new electricity market structure and regulation. The private sector would play a key role in electricity generation.


Bangladesh microgrid; microgrid policy; renewable energy; rural electricity transition; Thailand microgrid

Full Text:



International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC], 2017. IEC TS 62898-1 Edition1.0 2017-05 MICROGRIDS – Part 1: Guidelines for microgrid projects planning and specification, ed.

Hirsch A., Parag Y., and Guerrero J., 2018. Microgrids: A review of technologies, key drivers, and outstanding issues. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 90: 402-411.

International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC], 2014. Microgrids for disaster preparedness and recovery with electricity continuity plans and systems. 978-2-8322-1151-9.

IRENA, 2020. Global Renewables Outlook: Energy transformation 2050. Retrieved July 23, 2020 from the World Wide Web: www.irena.org/publications.

Palit D. and A. Chaurey. 2011. Off-grid rural electrification experiences from South Asia: Status and best practices. Energy for Sustainable Development 15: 266-276.

Dagnachew A.G., Hof A.F., Roelfsema M.R., and van Vuuren D.P., 2020. Actors and governance in the transition toward universal electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Policy 143: 111572.

Yadav P., Davies P.J., and Palit D., 2019. Distributed solar photovoltaics landscape in Uttar Pradesh, India: Lessons for transition to decentralised rural electrification. Energy Strategy Reviews 26: 100392.

Derks M. and H. Romijn. 2019. Sustainable performance challenges of rural microgrids: Analysis of incentives and policy framework in Indonesia. Energy for Sustainable Development 53: 57-70.

World Energy Council, 2019. World Energy Trilemma Index | 2019. World Energy Council, London.

World Energy Council, 2020. Innovation Insights Brief | 2020. World Energy Council, London 2020.

World Economic Forum, 2019. Accelerating access to sustainable energy: A key priority in energy transition. World Economic Forum 2019.

World Economic Forum, 2020. Fostering Effective Energy Transition 2020 edition. World Economic Forum.

Peters J., Sievert M., and Toman M.A., 2019. Rural electrification through mini-grids: Challenges ahead. Energy Policy 132: 27-31.

Asmus P., 2018. The Microgrid Revolution. Retrieved March 12, 2018 from the World Wide Web: http://peterasmus.com/journal/2009/11/6/the-microgrid-revolution.html

Hatziargyriou N., Asano H., Iravani R., and Marnay C., 2007. Microgrids an overview of ongoing research, development and demonstration projects. IEEE Power & Energy Magazine :78-84. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/emp-pubs.html

Bower W., Ton D., Guttromson R., Glover S., Stamp J., Bhatnagar D., and Reilly J., 2014. The advanced microgrid integration and interoperability. Sandia National Laboratories SAND2014-1535, 2014.

Anyebe A.A., 2018. An overview of approaches to the study of public policy. International Journal of Political Science (IJPS) 4:8-17.

Ali A., Li W., Hussain R., He X., Williams B., and Memon A., 2017. Overview of current microgrid policies, incentives and barriers in the European Union, United States and China. Sustainability 9: 1146.

Mariam L., Basu M., and Conlon M.F., 2016. Microgrid: Architecture, policy and future trends. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 64: 477-489.

Power Division, 2008. Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh. Power Division, Ministry of Power Energy and Mineral Resources, Ed.

Power Division, 2018. Revisiting power system master plan (PSMP) 2016. Power Division, Ministry of Power Energy and Mineral Resources, Ed., 2018 ed.

Programming Division, 2018. Power and Energy Sector Strategy Paper (SSP). Programming Division, Ministry of Planning, Ed., 2018 ed.

Khan I., 2019. Energy-saving behaviour as a demand-side management strategy in the developing world: The case of Bangladesh. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering 10: 493-510.

Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority, 2020. SREDA | National Database Of Renewable Energy : Renewable Energy Installed Capacity. Retrieved from July 29, 2020. from the World Wide Web: http://www.renewableenergy.gov.bd/index.php.

Bangadesh Rural Electrification Board, 2020. At a glance BREB Program. Retrieved July 20, 2020 from the World Wide Web: http://www.reb.gov.bd/site/page/c08b56bd-c300-4d08-8ea2-c25eedffbfdb/-.

Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority, 2020. SREDA | All Stakeholder of Renewable Energy | Counted Number: 112. Retrieved July 25, 2020 from the World Wide Web: https://solar.sreda.gov.bd/stakeholder/view/.

EPPO, 2019. Thailand Power Development Plan 2018-2037 (PDP2018). Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO). Ministry of Energy.

EPPO, 2015. Thailand Smart Grid Development Master Plan (2015-2036). Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO). Ministry of Energy.

EPPO, 2016. Thailand Smart Grid Action Plan (2017-2021). Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) Ministry of Energy.

DEDE, 2015. Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP2015). Department of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency (DEDE), Ministry of Energy.

Ministry of Energy, 2015. Energy Efficiency Plan; EEP 2015. Ministry of Energy.

World Bank Group. The World Bank | Data Bangladesh [Online]. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: https://data.worldbank.org/country/bangladesh?view=chart.

World Bank Group. The World Bank | Data Thailand [Online]. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: https://data.worldbank.org/country/thailand?view=chart.

IRENA. Statistical profile Bangladesh [Online]. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: https://www.irena.org/IRENADocuments/Statistical_Profiles/Asia/Bangladesh_Asia_RE_SP.pdf.

IRENA. Statistical profile Thailand [Online]. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: https://www.irena.org/IRENADocuments/Statistical_Profiles/Asia/Thailand_Asia_RE_SP.pdf.

IndexMundi. Factbook country comparision Bangladesh vs Thailand [Online]. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: https://www.indexmundi.com/factbook/compare/bangladesh.thailand/energy.

EGAT. Thailand electricity generation capacity [Online]. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: https://www.egat.co.th/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=80&Itemid=116.