End-Use Energy Efficiency Improvements and SO2 Emissions in Indonesia: An Input-Out Analysis

Ram Shrestha, Charles O.P. Marpuang


This paper analyses the production of SO2 by the Indonesian in 1990 and 2000 using an input-output (I-O) model. It also assesses the implications of residential sector energy efficiency (EE) improvement programs for SO2 production by the Indonesian economy in 2000 under both high and low growth scenarios. The study shows that the SO2 emissions from Indonesia would increase from 740 million kg in 1990 to 1.614 billion kg in 2000 under the high growth scenario and to 1.166 billion kg under the low growth scenario by 25 million kg under the high growth scenario and by 22 million kg under the low growth scenario. Of the total SO2 produced in 1990 and 2000, more than 60% are associated with the indirect production demand for fuel.

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