A Multidimensional Energy Poverty in Indonesia and Its Impact on Health

Citra Nirmala Utami, Djoni Hartono


Developing countries, such as Indonesia, still experience difficulties in terms of accessing electricity and meeting the need for clean energy for cooking. Therefore, it is important to measure energy poverty holistically. This study aimed to find empirical evidence regarding multidimensional energy poverty in Indonesia and its impact on health. Energy poverty and health had become a serious concern in the global world, including in Indonesia. However, empirical studies in proving multidimensional energy poverty and its impact on health are still very limited. This study uses a simultaneous equation model with Two-Stage-Least-Square (2SLS) regression method and measuring multidimensional energy poverty through two aspects, namely accessibility and affordability. Results show that low accessibility to electricity leads to a lower health condition and the higher the ratio of energy consumption to total consumption, the lower a household’s health condition. The result from the multidimensional energy poverty measurement also shows positive causality with the households’ health condition.


Energy poverty; Health; Multidimensional energy poverty; Quality of life; Self-assessed health

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